Art History, Online

atmospheric perspective- sequentially using lighter colors for each region of the painting. This technique creates a sense of distance for objects that are distant in the painting chiaroscuro- using light and shadow to define forms codex- book composed of folded sheets sewn along one edge optics- the branch of physics that studies the physical properties of light sfumato- (from the Italian for smoke) an imperceptible, subtle transition from light to dark, without any clear break or line

—Vocab for Leonardo da Vinci

While in Milan, da Vinci created _____ for the Milan Cathedral dome. Select all that apply.

—theatre designs

Pieta- picture or sculpture of Mary mourning with her dead son Jesus Christ across her lap


Michelangelo’s name

—Michelangelo Di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni

Why did Michelangelo sculpt the mother figure in his Pieta as a young woman?

—Mary, the mother in the painting, was depicted as a young woman to symbolize the purity of the soul

Which of the following is NOT one of the stories depicted in the Sistine Chapel?

—God Separating Light from Darkness
—Creation of Adam, the Creation of Eve
—Temptation and Fall of Adam and Eve
—The Flood
—The Last Judgement (along the back wall)

Michelangelo restored and enhanced the design of ______, while he was the chief architect of St. Peter’s Basilica.


Where is the original wooden model of the dome of Saint Peter’s Basilica (created by Michelangelo) located?

—The Vatican

Michelangelo’s preferred art form was _____.


For the dome’s exterior, Michelangelo used a ribbed design from what city?


Michelangelo’s life and famous works, such as: Pieta, David, Sistine Chapel, Saint Peter’s Basilica


Devotional imagery- artwork produced for the purposes of worship, prayer or religious instruction or inspiration lyrical- expressing deep emotion stanze- rooms symmetrical- a mirror-image (though not exact) balance tone- the feeling created by the picture

—Great Ren Painters

Raphael was an assistant and student under the painter


Which of the following is not one of Raphael’s paintings?

—Venus of Urbino

How did the Catholic Church pay for the many religious works of art?


Which of the following artists is responsible for painting on canvas and helping to make this a common practice?


Titian’s paintings can be characterized by which of the following?

—vibrant color
—free brushwork
—atmospheric tone
—monumental figures
—idealized landscapes

Raphael’s three-dimensionality in his paintings Raphael’s use of chiaroscuro harmony within Raphael’s work the poetic qualities of Titian’s work the symbols used by Titian in his work, often portrayed by vibrant colors and free brushstrokes, which are considered poetic


Ambiguity- open to two or more interpretations artifice- made by intention and not nature, skillful and clever, sometimes tricky calligraphic- using flowing, decorative lines mysticism- immediate consciousness of the transcendent or ultimate reality or God


The following are characteristics of Mannerist painting?

—imbalanced composition (often circular rather than pyramid)
—visual complexity and ambiguity
—unusual depictions of traditional themes
—themes of courtly behavior and sophistication

All of the following were Mannerist artists


El Greco’s work

—Saint Dominic in Prayer
—The Holy Family
—The Burial of the Count of Orgaz

…Was the most influential architect of the Mannerist period.


The hallmarks of the Renaissance — centralization and harmony mannerism as a reaction against harmony the distorted proportions of the human figure in Mannerism Pontormo as the first significant Mannerist painter

—Mannerism ideas

Baldachin a- pillared canopy luminosity- having the quality of light verisimilitude- possessing the quality of truth

—Italian Baroque art

If a painting has verisimilitude, it is _____.


A person in the Baroque period would most likely _____.

—be more open-minded about religion and science than previous people

Qualities of the Baroque era include all of the following

—sense of movement
—feeling of infinite space In painting and sculpture, light and shadow contrast to create a dramatic effect

Italian Baroque architecture is typified by all of the following except _____.

—simple, unadorned facades

Caravaggio’s work was shocking because of _____.


The intended effect of Bernini’s colonnade at Saint Peter’s Church is _____.

—to embrace people in the “arms” of the Catholic Church

Who was the patron of Velázquez?

—Phillip IV

The contradiction and conflict of the Baroque period the beginnings of the scientific revolution, as defined by the prominence of Copernicus, Galileo, and Newton the flourishing of religious art despite enhanced secularization motion, energy, and drama in Baroque art Caravaggio’s extreme realism


Carravesque- in the style of Caravaggio sensuous- appealing to the senses; taking delight in beauty still lifes- arrangements of non-human objects in an artful manner voluptuous- having a large bosom and pleasing curves; having strong sexual appeal

—Northern European Baroque Art

When the Dutch Protestants rebelled against the Roman Catholic church, the Spanish king quelled the uprising.


Dutch merchants were interested in what kind of artwork?

—still lifes
—genre painting

Peter Paul Rubens’s artistic style can be characterized by all of the following

—animated, exuberant, and sensuous.

The famous Dutch painter whose qualities included glowing light against dark backgrounds and truthful rendering of his subjects was:


Some called Rembrandt’s technique One contemporary painter called Rembrandt’s paintings a mess of this: He had tremendous control over this: The result seems like this Every coincidence adds to the effect of the perfect

—wizardly, smudges, medium, coincidence, illusion

Dutch painter Jan Vermeer was famous for his _____.

—Composition and use of space

The characteristics of Italian Baroque art were whole-heartedly adopted and transformed by artists in Northern Europe. Flanders and the Dutch Republic produced three of the greatest artists of all time: Peter Paul Rubens, who painted sensuous pictures featuring voluptuous women (female figures who inspired the term “Rubenesque”); Rembrandt, whose dazzling virtuosity in chiaroscuro and in “coarse”realism set a new standard; and Vermeer, who used light in a dramatic way. in France, the Palace of Versailles provided an example of quintessential Baroque architecture.

Arabesque- an ornament that interlaces simulated foliage in an intricate design grotto- a small cave; an artificial cavern-like retreat iridescent having- a play of lustrous rainbow colors opulence- rich showiness; overabundance satirize- to ridicule or mock

The Swing by Jean Honoré Fragonard embodies the spirit of the French Revolution.


Hogarth’s Marriage A-la-Mode paintings correspond to, and sometimes deliberately evoke, French art and Rococo design.


The eighteenth-century in France and England was a time of great changes, The middle class grew richer and stronger, The printing press meant that many more people were literate, While the aristocracy promoted an opulent art style in France, the English were exploring the idea of liberty in art, landscape and society, Painters such as Watteau and Fragonard in France emphasized love and sex. In England, painters such as Gainsborough and Hogarth painted portraits that both romanticized and satirized the aristocracy.


Diffused- a light that spreads soft shadows, may be filtered through translucent material empiricism- the doctrine that says sense experience is the only source of knowledge intelligentsia- the intellectuals of a particular time and place salon- a gathering of people for the purposes of discussion treatise- a written work on a particular subject tyranny- dictatorship: a government that is ruled by one dictator, who is usually brutal

—The Enlightenment and Neuroclassicism

Denis Didero once stated that all of the following were means to acquiring knowledge

—observation of nature, reflection, and experimentation

Which of the following men was an outspoken critic in regards to the perceived tyranny of church and state?


The following correctly describe the ideals of Enlightenment thinkers?

—noble simplicity

Thomas Jefferson’s home in Virginia is call Monticello, which in Italian means _____.

—little mountain

All of the following describe Jacques-Louis David’s painting, Oath of the Horatii, except for:

—simple palette

The eighteenth century was a time of major political upheaval, when the middle class grew larger, becoming richer and better educated, and demanded freedom from oppressive policies of the church and state In the United States of America, the Constitution also demanded a separation of church and state The ideals of the Enlightenment took root in Neoclassical art; artists working in the Neoclassical style looked to ancient Greece and Rome for their inspiration They abandoned the ornate opulence of the Baroque and Rococo periods and instead focused on creating clean, balanced compositions The figures in these artworks tended to be heroic, and the work typically carried a moral meaning.

—Enlight Neo

lucid- transparently clear; easily understandable sublime- the quality of greatness or vast magnitude, whether physical, moral, intellectual, metaphysical, or artistic value- relative darkness or lightness of a color


Select all the qualities that are typical of Romantic art.


The sensibility of Romanticism is feeling.


We consider Goya’s painting The Third of May to be “Romantic” because _____.

—it conveys strong emotions

Death of Saranapalus by Delacroix demonstates all of the following except _____.

—a balanced and harmonious composition

Modern artists have rejected Romanticism and are more influenced by Classical works.


Romanticism was set into motion by the ideas of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a French philosopher and writer, Romantics were inspired by emotions rather than reason and they had a desire for freedom and individuality, Such painters as Fuseli, Goya, Gericault, Delacroix and Friedrich employed dramatic subjects, severe light and dark contrasts, and violent compositions to create an emotional charge in their work, English and American painters such as Turner and Cole took these same qualities and applied them to landscapes