3.7 Art of Europe and America

Hall of Mirrors Versailles 1678 Rococo
—17 arches filled with mirror panels that reflect the view overlooking the palace
—239 ft covered in chandeliers, sculpture, and paintings

Basilica of Vierzehnheiligen Balthasar Neumann 1743 Rococo
—Bright white to reflect Germany’s glistening snow
—14 saint statues
—interest and vivacity in the ornate decoration

The Swing Jean-Honoré
—flirtatious young lady who kicks a shoe so that the “gentleman” can see below her skirt
—Cupid: secret love affair
—Bishop: Comment on the Church’s ignorance of immoral behavior and by other chiding of the Catholic church for not condemning such conduct

The Marriage Settlement William Hogarth 1743
—Reaction to aristocratic classes of the Rococo era
—criticized the morals of his times
—made affordable art (prints)-Series of paintings (out of 6)
—uninterested bride and groom
—two dogs echo the attitudes of the bride and groom
—building that can be seen through the window will be paid by the dowry

The Lady’s Death William Hogarth 1833
—Wife poisoned herself and her lover Silvertongue killed the husband
—Addresses the need for social change (especially children)
—one dog remains
—fathers act as instigators of the marriage
—bride’s father removes the ring
—grooms father uses the dowry

The Oath of Horattio Jacques-Louis David Neoclassicism
—linked to ideas that fueled the French Revolution(promotion of civic duty)
—3 Roman archways divide the scene
—Heroic soldiers while the women mourn
—Message of sacrifice

Cornelia Pointing to Her Children as Her Treasures Angelica Kauffmann 1785
—Roman woman presented as the model for motherhood and morality
—Hands firmly: models stength of character rather than pride

Monticello Thomas Jefferson
—Has a dome similar to Roman dome
—porticos at front and back
—columns and pediments reminiscent of ancient architecture

Third of May 1808 Goya Romanticism
—Commemorates the Spanish resistance to Napoleon’s occupation of Madrid

Family of Charles IV Goya Romanticism
—Royal family ornately dressed
—Both king and queen are overweight
—Queen is prominent center (stealing the stage)
—Reflected the artist’s respect for truth and nature

Liberty Leading the People Eugene Delacroix Romanticism
—3 day July Revolution
—Bare-breast (Liberty): freedom
—sacrifices of all people

Elohim Creating Adam William Blake Romanticism
—Transforms Michelangelo’s famous Creation of Adam into an emotionally charged image
—Process of creation is shown to be painful for both creator and created
—Creation of man will inevitably bring the fall of man (snake)

The Oxbow Thomas Cole Romanticism
—view of twisting Connecticut river
—The only trace of a man in this scene is the artist wearing a hat in the lower center of the canvas

Niagra Fredric Edwin Romanticism
—Symbolized America’s territorial expansion: marks the northern border of the US
—Presence of God in nature

Stonebreakers Gustave Courbet Realism
—Depiction of the working class on a large sized painting
—highlights monotonous back breaking work of the poor
—Older man training young man

The Banjo Lesson Henry Ossawa Tanner Realism
—Shows the passing of knowledge between generations
—Older man training young man
—challenges the stereotype of smiling black men as simple-minded entertainers
—dignified image of a poor black family
—calm scene: earthy colors
—boy’s spiritual growth: light coming from window

Déjeuner sur l’Herbe Eduoard Manet Realism
—Portrayed characters in the modern world and transformed the painted surface
—two men sitting in a park next to a naked lady
—figures have a bold outline rather than gradual shading
—lack volume

Ophelia Everett Millais Realism
—Scene from Hamlet
—detailed plants and flowers (identifiable) (flowers from Hamlet)
—Used model in a bathtub

Impression Sunrise Claude Monet Impressionism
—Captured the essence of light glittering on water in the harbor of Le Havre
—background suggests masts and smokestacks of an industrial post

Moulin de la Galette Pierre-Auguste Renoir Impressionism
—Transport viewers into the world of beauty and pleasure
—people at popular cafes in Montmare district
—Absense of strong outline and his use of dark blues and purples are characteristics of Renoir’s style
—spontaneous brushstrokes: life is a perpetual holiday

Paris Street: Rainy Day Gustave Caillebotte Impressionism
—Use of extreme perspective
—green lamp post creates a strong vertical line that divides the composition
—Left: newly built housing
—Right: high class couple

The Kiss August Rodin Modern sculpture
—Used live models to depict energy and passion
—two nude lovers embracing, engaged in a passionate kiss
—originally part of Rodin’s Gates of Hell (Dante’s Divine Comedy)
—Story of Francesca and Paolo

The Waltz Camille Claudel Modern sculpture
—Two dancers intertwined as they move as one
—woman’s dress has fallen off her body and blows to the side expressing energetic movement
—considered too erotic

Blue Dancers Edgar Degas Impressionism
—Shows performers fixing their tutus and hair preparing to walk on stage
—impression of intimacy
—techniques learned from Japanese prints and photography
—(ex: sharp cropping)

Mont-Sainte-Victore Paul Cèzanne Post-Impressionism
—Worked on this for years, captured the essence of the mountain as it appeared over time rather than a single moment
—Used atmospheric perspective: created push-pull effect (warm hues come towards us while cool hues recede)
—Tree in foreground creates a feeling of being pulled into the depth of the painting and then being pushed back
—Upper branches echo the outline of the distant mountain

The Vision after the Sermon Paul Gauguin Symbolism
—Shows the pious people of Pont-Aven dressed in Sunday clothes
—Sermon of Jacob wrestling the angel
—Expressed what’s on the people’s minds
—bright red ground: intensely emotional scene

Starry Night Van Gogh
—Painted during a stay at an asylum
—infused the scene with his own emotions:
—act of applying thick paint (impasto) and the energy of the artist in swirls that show movement in the sky and the light emanating from the stars
—Cypress tree: resembles flames
—Church: personal trials with religion

Eiffel Tower Gustave Eiffel Fin de Siècle
—Iconic Parisian symbol
—critics said it symbolized the decadence of the modern generation who were destroying French history and long held traditions

Poster advertising a dance performance by Jules Chèret Loie Fuller Fin de Siècle
—Advertised dancer
—swirling colors and sensuous body of the red-haired lady captured the essence of the night club life

The Kiss Gustav Klimt Fin de Siècle
—Woman is embraced and kissed by a powerful man
—precipice filled with flowers: danger and beauty of passion
—from golden phase (gold leaf)
—patterns from nature reflect artist’s interest in art Nouveau

Wisteria Dining Room Lucien Lèvy-Dhurmer Fin de Siècle
—Wisteria vine: symbol for welcome
—wood paneling carved like wisteria
—organic designed shaped like wisteria were stamped