Unit 1: From Baroque to Romantic

How does David, by Italian Baroque artist Gianlorenzo Bernini, demonstrate a departure from Renaissance conventions?
—The figure breaks into the viewer’s space and engages the viewer.

How does Gianlorenzo Bernini’s Fountain of the Four Rivers exhibit Italian Baroque characteristics?
—The fountain was a combination of artistic disciplines that created a dramatic experience.

How did Caravaggio depart from Renaissance traditions to create paintings that reflect the Italian Baroque style?
—The artist focused on naturalism and created drama through an intense use of light and dark.

What convention did Italian Baroque artist Caravaggio use in The Conversion of Saint Paul?
—The artist used foreshortening to bring the figure to the front of the painting and project him into the viewer’s space.

How did the Spanish Baroque artist Diego Velázquez organize the figures in Las Meninas?
—Velázquez placed figures in a pyramid configuration.

Which of the following is a characteristic of Landscape with the Burial of Phocion by French Baroque artist Nicolas Poussin?
—It depicts an idealized landscape with all of the elements carefully constructed.

Which of the following is a characteristic of Elevation of the Cross by Baroque artist Peter Paul Rubens of the Netherlands?
—The figures’ poses and arrangement emphasize a sense of movement and drama.

Which statement best describes an approach used by Baroque artist Rembrandt of the Netherlands in his later years?
—He used the impasto technique to create expressive brushstrokes with thick paint.

How did Antoine Watteau demonstrate characteristics of Rococo art in his paintings?
—He used delicate, lively brushwork and subtle variations of color.

How did French artist Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin exhibit Naturalist characteristics in his paintings?
—He used limited colors to depict objects with a sense of realism.

Which statement describes a difference between these paintings by Dutch Baroque artists Vermeer and Rembrandt?
—Vermeer used natural light to create convincing space; Rembrandt used tenebrism to depict a figure emerging from the shadows.

What is one similarity between Caravaggio’s The Conversion of Saint Paul and Rubens’s Elevation of the Cross?
—They use foreshortening to depict the figures projecting into the viewer’s space.

Which of the following statements describes how French artist Jacques-Louis David used a Neoclassical characteristic in Oath of the Horatii?
—He used a background of simple Classical columns and arches that don’t detract from the figures.

What is a similarity between Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello and the ancient Roman Pantheon?
—They feature a portico, pediment, columns, and dome.

How did French artist Eugène Delacroix incorporate Romantic conventions in Liberty Leading the People?
—Delacroix used rich colors and placed touches of pure pigment throughout the painting.

What characteristic describes The Third of May, 1808 by Spanish Romantic artist Francisco Goya?
—The dramatic light and shadow draw attention to the central figure.

What is one difference between the Neoclassical artist David’s Oath of the Horatii and the Romantic artist Delacroix’s Liberty Leading the People?
—David used smooth brushstrokes to enhance the lifelike quality of the figures; Delacroix used expressive brushstrokes to create drama.

How are Oath of the Horatii by Jacques-Louis David and Pilgrimage to Cythera by Antoine Watteau similar?
—The paintings have a carefully planned background that resembles a stage set.