Become CITI #2 Flashcards Questions with Exam Certified in just 1 day!
Here you will get 100% free & correct CITI #2 Flashcards Questions with Exam Certification Answers.
Updated CITI #2 Flashcards Questions with Certification Questions & Answers:
(Click on the questions, to get the correct answers)
Which of the following statements is true about the term research hierarchy in EBP?
- A .Tightly controlled experiments reside at the top, regardless of the EBP question.
- B .Qualitative studies are the most likely to reside at the top for most EBP questions.
- C .Where a type of study resides on a research hierarchy depends on the type of EBP question being asked.
- D .All types of research designs are relevant to all types of EBP questions.
Which of the following statements is/are true about qualitative studies?
- A .They are just as likely to employ tightly controlled, inflexible designs as are quantitative studies.
- B .They tend to employ flexible designs and subjective methods—often with small samples of research participants—in seeking to generate tentative new insights, deep understandings, and theoretically rich observations.
- C .They are devalued in EBP.
- D .They are most applicable when we seek to determine whether a particular intervention is really the cause of a particular outcome.
- E .Both b and c are true
To infer that an intervention is the real cause of a change:
- A .we must make sure that the change preceded the onset of the intervention
- B .it is sufficient to know that the intervention is correlated with the change.
- C .we must ascertain whether the change is correlated with the intervention, learn that it did not precede the intervention, and eliminate plausible alternative explanations for the change.
- D .rely on studies that avoided the use of random assignment to treatment conditions.
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses:
- A .reside at the top of the evidentiary hierarchy for answering EBP questions about the effectiveness of interventions, programs, or policies.
- B .reside below randomized experiments because they take replications into account.
- C .are identical, regardless of what statistics they employ.
- D .are all unbiased and of equal quality
- E .a, c, and d are all true.
Which of the following statements is/are true about the pursuit of logic and objectivity in research?
- A .Some scholars reject the pursuit of a knowable objective reality.
- B .Some scholars argue that even though every individual has his or her own subjective take on social reality, it still is worth trying to minimize bias in research.
- C .Some scholars have depicted the notion that just because perfect objectivity is an unattainable ideal we should therefore not even try to minimize bias in research as fashionable nonsense.
- D .Some scholars have critiqued relativism as logically self-contradictory because if all views of social reality are equally valid, then how can relativists proclaim their view as the most correct one?
- E .All of the above.
Which of the following statements is/are an advantage of systematic reviews?
- A .They can shed light on the external validity of the findings of an individual study.
- B .They can help make sense out of a bewildering array of findings from different types of studies that produced inconsistent results.
- C .They can apply statistical techniques that merge the findings of many different studies.
- D .All of the above.
Which of the following statements is/are correct about exclusion and inclusion criteria in systematic reviews?
- A .They might pertain to methodological characteristics of studies.
- B .They might pertain to the characteristics of study participants.
- C .They might be too narrow or restrictive.
- D .All of the above.
Which of the following statements is/are correct about the interpretation of a correlation that equals .30?
- A .It might be clinically significant
- B .It is too weak to be clinically significant
- C .It is strong enough to assure clinical significance
- D .None of the above
Which of the following statements is/are true about the PRISMA group?
- A .It was formed in recognition of the poor quality of some of the earlier systematic reviews and meta-analyses being published
- B .It provides a Web site with information on critically appraising systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
- C .Its checklist includes a section on the funding of the systematic review or meta-analysis.
- D .All of the above.
If an experimental group’s mean of 60 is a better outcome than the control group’s mean of 55, and the standard deviation is 10, then the d-index equals:
- A ..50
- B .5.0
- C .2.0
- D ..05