CITI #2 Flashcards Questions with Answers 2021

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Which of the following statements is true about the term research hierarchy in EBP?

  •         A .Tightly controlled experiments reside at the top, regardless of the EBP question.
  •         B .Qualitative studies are the most likely to reside at the top for most EBP questions.
  •         C .Where a type of study resides on a research hierarchy depends on the type of EBP question being asked.
  •         D .All types of research designs are relevant to all types of EBP questions.

Which of the following statements is/are true about qualitative studies?

  •         A .They are just as likely to employ tightly controlled, inflexible designs as are quantitative studies.
  •         B .They tend to employ flexible designs and subjective methods—often with small samples of research participants—in seeking to generate tentative new insights, deep understandings, and theoretically rich observations.
  •         C .They are devalued in EBP.
  •         D .They are most applicable when we seek to determine whether a particular intervention is really the cause of a particular outcome.
  •         E .Both b and c are true

To infer that an intervention is the real cause of a change:

  •         A .we must make sure that the change preceded the onset of the intervention
  •         B .it is sufficient to know that the intervention is correlated with the change.
  •         C .we must ascertain whether the change is correlated with the intervention, learn that it did not precede the intervention, and eliminate plausible alternative explanations for the change.
  •         D .rely on studies that avoided the use of random assignment to treatment conditions.

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses:

  •         A .reside at the top of the evidentiary hierarchy for answering EBP questions about the effectiveness of interventions, programs, or policies.
  •         B .reside below randomized experiments because they take replications into account.
  •         C .are identical, regardless of what statistics they employ.
  •         D .are all unbiased and of equal quality
  •         E .a, c, and d are all true.

Which of the following statements is/are true about the pursuit of logic and objectivity in research?

  •         A .Some scholars reject the pursuit of a knowable objective reality.
  •         B .Some scholars argue that even though every individual has his or her own subjective take on social reality, it still is worth trying to minimize bias in research.
  •         C .Some scholars have depicted the notion that just because perfect objectivity is an unattainable ideal we should therefore not even try to minimize bias in research as fashionable nonsense.
  •         D .Some scholars have critiqued relativism as logically self-contradictory because if all views of social reality are equally valid, then how can relativists proclaim their view as the most correct one?
  •         E .All of the above.

Which of the following statements is/are an advantage of systematic reviews?

  •         A .They can shed light on the external validity of the findings of an individual study.
  •         B .They can help make sense out of a bewildering array of findings from different types of studies that produced inconsistent results.
  •         C .They can apply statistical techniques that merge the findings of many different studies.
  •         D .All of the above.

Which of the following statements is/are correct about exclusion and inclusion criteria in systematic reviews?

  •         A .They might pertain to methodological characteristics of studies.
  •         B .They might pertain to the characteristics of study participants.
  •         C .They might be too narrow or restrictive.
  •         D .All of the above.

Which of the following statements is/are correct about the interpretation of a correlation that equals .30?

  •         A .It might be clinically significant
  •         B .It is too weak to be clinically significant
  •         C .It is strong enough to assure clinical significance
  •         D .None of the above

Which of the following statements is/are true about the PRISMA group?

  •         A .It was formed in recognition of the poor quality of some of the earlier systematic reviews and meta-analyses being published
  •         B .It provides a Web site with information on critically appraising systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
  •         C .Its checklist includes a section on the funding of the systematic review or meta-analysis.
  •         D .All of the above.

If an experimental group’s mean of 60 is a better outcome than the control group’s mean of 55, and the standard deviation is 10, then the d-index equals:

  •         A ..50
  •         B .5.0
  •         C .2.0
  •         D ..05
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