Chp 2-3: Baroque/Rococo & Neoclassicism/Romanticism

Age of Absolutism
—17th century – Rulers tried to rule with absolute power

—overtly ornate style of painting, sculpture, and interior design developed in the early 1700’s in France which later spread to central Europe

The Baroque period still involved ____________________.
—reformation and the counter-reformation

Trompe l’oeil
—”Trick of the eye” or “fool the eye,” a two-dimensional artwork designed to make the viewer believe it is in three dimensions.

—an Italian word for an outdoor gathering space in an urban area (like a town square)

Piazza of the Basilica of Saint Peter
—Bernini, 1656. The Vatican. Italian Baroque.

Church of San Carlo Alle Quattro Fontane
—Borromini, 1665-1667. Rome. Italian Baroque.

—Bernini, 1623. Rome. Marble. Italian Baroque Sculpture.

Ecstasy of Saint Theresa
—Bernini, 1645-1652. Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria Della Vittoria, Rome.

The Calling of Saint Matthew
—Caravaggio, 1597-1601. San Luigi Dei Francesi, Rome. Oil on canvas. Baroque Painting in Italy.

Judith Slaying Holofernes
—Artemesia Gentileschi, 1614-1620. Oil on Canvas. Baroque Painting in Italy.

Venus and Adonis
—Peter Paul Rubens, 1635. Oil on canvas. Baroque Painting in Northern Europe.

Raising of the Cross
—Peter Paul Rubens, 1609. Oil on wood. Antwerp Cathedral. Baroque Painting in Northern Europe.

Belshazzar’s Feast
—Rembrandt van Rijn, 1636-38. Oil on Canvas. Baroque Painting in Northern Europe.

Self-Portrait, Leaning on a Sill
—Rembrandt van Rijn, 1640. Oil on canvas. Baroque Painting in Northern Europe.

Self-Portrait as Saint Paul
—Rembrandt van Rijn, 1661. Oil on canvas. Baroque Painting in Northern Europe.

—Jan Vermeer, 1668. Oil on canvas. Baroque Painting in Northern Europe.

Las Meninas (The Maids in Waiting)
—Diego Velasquez, 1656. Oil on canvas. Spanish Baroque.

Expansion Palace of Versailles
—Versailles, France. 1661-1708. Baroque Architecture of France. Architects: Louis Vau & Jules Hardouin Mansart

The Swing
—Jean-Honore Frangonard, 1766. Oil on canvas. Rococo Painting.

Grand Stair Hall of the Prince-Bishop’s Residenz
—Johann Balthasar, 1719-53. Wurzburg, Germany. Late Baroque and Rococo Architecture.

Oath of the Haratii
—Jacques-Louis David, 1784-85. Oil on canvas. Neoclassical Style in France.

Arc de Triomphe
—Jean-Francois-Therese Chalgrin et al, 1806-36. Paris. Neoclassicism.

Virginia State Capitol
—Thomas Jefferson, 1785-89. Richmond, Virginia. Neoclassicism in America. (Maison Carree in Nimes, France was a model/inspiration)

—Thomas Jefferson, 1769-1784. Charlottesville, Virginia (VA). Neoclassicism in America.

University of Virginia
—Thomas Jefferson, 1817-36. Charlottesville, Virginia. Neoclassicism in America.

Strawberry Hill (Horace Walpole Residence)
—William Robertson, Richard Bentley & others, 1749-1777. Twickenham, England. Romantic Style in Architecture.

New Houses of Parliament
—Sir Charles Barry & Augustus W.N. Pugin, 1836-70. London, England. Romantic Style.

Grande Odalisque
—Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres, 1814. Oil on canvas. Romantic Painting in Europe.

Raft of Medusa
—Theodore Gericault, 1819. Oil on canvas. Romantic Painting in Europe.

Executions of the Third of May
—Francisco de Goya y Lucientes, 1808, 1814. Oil on canvas. Romantic painting in Europe.

Burning Houses of Lords and Commons
—Joseph Mallord William Turner, 1835. Oil on canvas. Romantic painting in Europe.

The Oxbow; View from Mount Holyoke
—Thomas Cole, 1836. Oil on canvas. Romantic painting in the USA. Thomas Cole was considered to be the leader of the Hudson River School Painters.

Sunrise, Yosemite Valley
—Albert Bierstadt, 1870. Oil on canvas. Romantic painting in the USA.

Peaceable Kingdom
—Edward Hicks, 1834. Oil on canvas. Romantic painting in the USA.

—a quality of light that makes the image appear to glow from within (ex: Sunrise, Yosemite Valley)

Folk Art
—characterized by flattened forms, unnatural proportions, lack reference to the classical traditions, naive or childlike quality, spontaneous & free, simple themes and straightforward narrative (ex: Peaceable Kingdom)

—shows beauty of nature but depicts destruction and sadness of it

The Hudson River School Painters
—A group of painters who painted Romantic panoramic landscape views near the Hudson River Valley and the surrounding mountains

Birthplace of Baroque?
—Rome c. 1600

Center of Rococo style?
—Paris – mid 18th century

—Began in early-mid 18th century. Competed against Neoclassicism. Named for Romance language and novels

Characteristics of Romanticism
—Reference medieval art/architecture, especially Gothic style
—Architectural ruins/overgrown gardens
—Exotic culture
—Intense emotion/drama/war/human tragedy
—Promoted freedom of expression
—Scenes of nature meant to awe and inspire wonder for natural world
—Idea of “Long ago and far away”

Gothic Revival
—Romantic-era architectural movement that employed Gothic forms including pointed arches and fan vaulting (ex: Strawberry Hill and New Houses of Parliament)

The Age of Enlightenment
—human powers of reason and intellect (emerged from Renaissance humanism)

—1780-1820. Adopted by many governments to represent power, authority and rule of law. It came to symbolize the spirit of democracy.

Characteristics of Neoclassicism
—classical language, subject matter, mythological narrative of classical tradition
—primary colors
—straight forward

—calm nature (opposite to sublime)

Jean-Jacques Rousseau who was an 18th century French philosopher of the Neoclassicism movement believed in…
—nature (his works: Oath of Horatii)

Baroque began in __________ and _________ ended up being the hotspot of it in the end.
—Rome, Paris

Characteristics of Rococo
—excessive ornamentation
—pastel colors
—illusionistic painting
—mirrors/reflective material
—fantasy with mythical, religious, imaginary scenes

—an artists style that followed the Renaissance developments in art, architecture, and music. It’s characterized by a continuation of Christian and classical themes and subject matter, though depicted in a relatively unrestrained, emotional and more energetic manner than that of previous styles of art.