Baroque art – characteristics, artwork

What are the characteristics of Baroque art?
—depict true or biblical events

What was the purpose of Baroque artwork
—propaganda from the Roman Catholic Church, proclaim supremacy of the Catholic faith, and incite Protestants to return to the fold

What movement is rooted in Baroque art
—Counter Reformation

Name the Baroque artists
—Le Brun
—Jan Vermeer
—Rachel Ruysch

Calling of Saint Matthew
—artist: Caravaggio
—date: 17th century
—materials: Oil on Canvas
—time era: Baroque

—use of chiaroscuro
—represents the light of divine revelation
—content: the painting depicts Jesus, in deep shadow on the right, calling Matthew the tax collector to join his disciples
—set in common place tavern
—the dark background emphasizes the mundane life Matthew had before Jesus
—Jesus is barely visible with a thin halo, reaching out to point at Matthew in a manner similar to Michelangelo’s Creation of Adam
—a beam of light emanates above Christ’s head and falls on Matthew, who points at himself in astonishment
—the beam of light shows that Matthew is being called into the Lord’s service

Ecstasy of Saint Teresa
—artist: Bernini
—date: 17th century
—materials: marble
—time era: baroque

—naturalistic and theatrical
—Bernini combines sculpture, architecture, and painting to transform the chapel into a stage set — typical of Baroque era
—Bernini depicts a vision St. Teresa had: an angel piercing her body with an arrow, bringing her into a painful but ecstatic communion with God
—Bernin visualizes her experience as metaphor for divine love –> the angel smiles at St. Teresa
—the sculpture is framed by columns beneath a pediment above the altar
—light is used as a metaphor for spiritual revelation in Caravaggio’s Calling for St. Matthew –> the rays beaming down from above reflect natural light from a concealed window above the cornice on the back wall

Il Gesu
—location: Rome
—date: 17th century
—architect: Vignola

—function: built to appropriate the pope’s distinction as a major participant in the Counter-Reformation “mother church of Jesuit order”
—the Jesuits were partners of the pope’s pursuit to reassert supremacy of the Catholic Church
—Plan: represents a transition – the nave takes up most of the space; large hall = accommodates large crowd
>the dome emphasizes the approach to the altar
>the opening of the building into large hall = theatrical
> central portral and exterior includes a classical pediment
> exterior paired with pilasters influenced by Michelangelo’s design for Saint Peter’s Cathedral
> scroll buttresses used
> minimal relief sculptures
> echoes Classical simplicity

The Triumph of the Name of Jesus
—artist: Gaulli
—theatrical and emotional-> Baroque
—combines sculpture and painting
—Gaulli used di sotto in su: seen from below
—subject: The Last Judgement
> the righteous ascending into Heaven
> the sinners plummet to Hell
—overlapping additional canvases outside frame help integrate Heaven and the Earth

Paintings of Secular Baroque art
—Henri iV Receives the Portrait of Marie de’Medici
—Las Meninas
—Self-Portrait with Saskia
—Woman Holding a Balance
—Fruits and Insects

Context: Secular Baroque Art
—the 30 Years War involved all of Europe except Italy –> resulted in restructuring of Europe
—redrawing boundaries –> new superpowers in France and the Netherlands
—secular subject in art increased in popularity
—the commercial art market was no longer dominated by the RCC or royal/aristocratic patrons
—the Mercantile middle-class commissioned art for their homes and bought pieces ready made on the open market –> artists’ conception and creation of images evolved
—scientific investigation of natural world led to Scientific Revolution

what type of paintings characterize Secular Baroque art?
—Portraiture and still life

Was is the location of Secular Baroque art
—northern europe

Characteristics of Rubens art
—influence from Renaissance and antique works of Michelangelo, Caravaggio, Titian, Veronese, and Tintoretto
—Classical antiquity influence

Henri IV Receives the Portrait of Marie de Medici
—artist: Rubens
—location: Northern Europe
—date: 1600 CE
—materials: OIl on Canvas

—Rubens used mythological and divine representations to elevate Medici
> gives impression that it was mandated by heaven
—Representation of Greek gods looking on in approval as Henri IV is seeing a portrait of Marie de Medici
—the eagle = symbolizes Zeus
—the peacock = symbolizes Hera
—Behind Henri IV is an allegorical personification of France
—Rubens often personified France in the Marie de Medici cycle to represent French royalty
—Cupid holds the painting, while cherubs hold Henri IV’s armor

Las Meninas
—artist: Diego Velazquez
—location: Spain
—date: 1600 CE
—Oil on Canvas

—the subject is the child Maria teresa attended by her maids, tutors, etc.
—in the shadows at the left, the painter pauses with paintbrush in hand > the subject of his work are the king and queen, the perceived viewers of this scene — there is a blurry reflection of their faces in the mirror at the back of the room
—Velazquez as turned this representation of the royal family into a picture of nobility; it is also a self-portrait
—this painting signifies

Self-Portrait with Saskia
—artist: Rembrandt
—date: 1600 CE
—media: etching

—the subject is a portrait of Rembrandt and his wife
—function: self-portraits of famous artists were used as gifts for honored guests or people the artists were indebted
—this is the only etching he made of them together
—unlike other Dutch artists, he painted variety of subjects — portraits, history, mythology, religious narratives, and landscapes
—their representation wearing historical clothing from the 16th century illustrated their relationship and love, not a lifelike representation

Characteristics of Rembrandt
—used the technique: tenebrism
—explores the effects of light and color

—a technique that emphasizes night effects

—artistL Le Brun
—date: 1800 CE
—media: Oil on Canvas

—the subject is a self-portrait
—the painting emphasizing Le Brun’s skill in painting fabrics
—she has a monumental composition with a turned away canvas
—there is a fresh and spontaneity of her confident gaze

Characteristics of Dutch portraits
—no religious themes
—includes genre, landscape, and still-life secular subjects that encode moral content
—popular scenes: battle, woodland, moonlight, farm and village
—paintings carried moralistic messages
—function: these paintings served the desire of the middle class for a decorative and accessible art that reflected their secular, commercial, pragmatic lives and offered focus for spiritual contemplation in a Protestant culture

Characteristics of Jan Vermeer
—known for painting interior scenes
—interior scenes = popular among middle-class patrons
—woman are primary occupants of the homes he painted and they present highly idealized depictions of the social values of Dutch citizens

Woman Holding a Balance
—artist: Jan Vermeer

—content: depicts a young woman wearing a veil and fur-trimmed jacket standing in a room in her home
—similar to Caravaggio’s use of light in Calling of Saint Matthew and symbolizing spiritual enlightenment
—She stands before a table which she has spread out her most precious possessions, which reflect the sunlight. She is holding a balance for weighing gold, but it is empty
—Behind her is a painting of the Last Judgement, in which Christ weighs the souls and is representative of the hidden meaning
—the woman holds scales in balance and contemplates what kind of life she must lead in order to be judged favorably on judgement day

Characteristics of Rachel Ruysch
—famous for still lifes
—the most celebrated Dutch woman artist
—specialized in flowers and woodland paintings
—incorporated animals and insects in her flower paintings

Fruits and Insects
—artist: rachel ruysch
—time period: Dutch Baroque

—Ruysch connected still life with scientific observation and vanitas symbolism
—vanitas: an allegorical still life meant to remind the viewer the transcience of human life

Palace of Versailles
—location: France
—patron: Louis XIV

—function: communicate power and authority of Louis XIV and served as a small city for the king and his court
—similar function as Nan Madol, the Forbidden City, and Machu Picchu
—massive size and grandeur of the palace and the splendor of the gardens
—two large intersecting canals were largest elements in the estate
—the Plan was organized around a series of round focal points with various paths radiating outward –> like an image of the sun, exemplifying Louis’s self-connection with Apollo

—Location: Spain
—Time period: Baroque

—built on a hilltop site of an early Islamic fortress
—function: the seat of the Nasrids, the last Spanish Muslim dynasty
—Christians who conquered the palace felt the palace represented the embodiment of luxury and chose to preserve its beauty and to commemorate the defeat of Islam
—the complex included government buildings, royal residences, gates, mosques, baths, barracks, stables, workshops, servant’s quarters, and gardens

—Court of Lions: the private retreat of Sultan Muhammad V
> divided into quadrants by cross-axial walkways– a garden form called Chahar Bagh
> the walkways carry channels that meet at a central marble
> The Court of Lions is surrounded by an arcade of stucco arches embellished with mugarnas–a type of support used as a decorative device in traditional Islamic and Persian architecture

Hall of the Sisters: functioned as a winter reception hall and music room
> the ceiling is designed to provide excellent acoustics and orante decoration simulating the heavens

—the size and grandeur communicate the power, influence, order, and control of the Nasrids

Virgin of Guadalupe
—the initial image of the Virgin of Guadalupe is believed to be an acheitopoieta
—context: Spanish colonization of indigenous Americas –> Catholic missionaries insisted on termination of indigenous religions and forced the peoples to convert to Catholicism and participate in religious practices, including veneration of saints

Virgin of Guadalupe (Virgin de Guadalupe)
—artist: Miguel Gonzalez

—Gonzalez’s version is inlaid with fragments of shell and created using a technique called enconchado
—in the representation, the Virgin is on top of an eagle perched on a cactus, representing Mexico city’s coat of arms
—she is surrounded by four round framed images supported by angels and depicting her appearance to Juan Diego
—Asian influence evident in the shell inlaid frame that combines floral motifs with symbols of the Virgin

Spaniard and Indian Produce a Mestizo
—spanish conquests –> interracial mating
—casta painting: document the process of race mixing three main groups that inhabited the Spanish colonies: Indian, Spanish, and African

Screen with the Siege of Belgrade and Hunting Scene
—date: 1600 CE
—materials: tempera and resin on wood, shell inlay

—this is the only known work to combine a blombo and the enconchado technique
—depicts a scene from the Great Turkish War
—commissioner: Jose Sarmiento de Valladres, viceroy of New Spain
—displayed in a ceremonial stateroom in Mexico’s viceregal palace
—the Siege of Belgrade is on one side of the screen
—hunting scene on the back
—the screen functioned to separate a portion of the room to give the impression of an intimate sitting room
—evidence of European themes combined with Indigenous techniques

Angel with Arquebus, Asiel Timor Dei
—date: 17th century CE
—Oil on Canvas
—location: Bolivia

—exemplifies European influence
—Asiel portrayed wearing a European looking garment with ballooned sleeves and intricate patterns
—he has a feathered hat and wear textiles with intricate patterns –> symbolized high status of the wearer in indigenous Andean culture
—Asiel’s clothing is a merging of two cultures
—Asiel has the gender-neutral features associated with angelic representations in the Catholic Church
—the gun symbolizes the Counter-Reformation efforts of the Catholic Church
—the Counter-Reformation was associated with the military – believers and angels considered the army of God
—Guns symbolized spaniards

Portrait of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz
—artist: Miguel Cabrera
—date: 1700 CE
—materials: Oil on Canvas

—Sor Juana de la Cruz lived in spanish viceroyalty of mexico
—turned down marriage proposals to pursue intellectual interests and became a nun
—supporter for women’s education
—this painting depicts her seated at a desk in a library
–> symbolizes her intellect
—she wears escuado de monja and rosary –> symbolizes religious devotion
—the portrayal as an intellectual and religious woman = significant bc nuns portrayed as passive